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Hi, this is Stewart Albertson with Albertson & Davidson. In this video, I want to talk about how we can support the claim, and meet our burden of proof, to show that undue influence took place.

Some of the markers that we look for are the actions by the person that we believe exerted or exercised undue influence over a decedent.  We want to look at this person’s place of business in the decedent’s life when the decedent was still living.  Did this person have control over the decedent’s access to food?  Did they have control over access to medications?  Did they have control over access to going to medical appointments to see physicians?  Did they have control over the financial information of the decedent?

We see these markers and we look at this person and we say, “did they take their place within the decedent’s life, where the decedent relies on them for many things:  their medications, transportation, food?  Did they take that and did they exercise undue pressure over the decedent to get the decedent to create a trust or a will that benefits them, at the expense of other people?”

The more we see these markers, the more that we see the undue pressure, such as a wrongdoer calling up a lawyer that the decedent has never met to make an appointment to create a new trust or a new amendment or a new will or a codicil to that will, to that person driving the decedent to the lawyer, to meeting in the lawyer’s office with the lawyer and the decedent to create the trust, to have multiple emails and texts with the drafting attorney to make sure that the trust or will is drafted according to the decedent’s wishes, those are all things that we see time and time again in these undue influence cases.

One thing that really helps us, in addition to everything I’ve just pointed out is the medical records. Do the medical records show that the decedent suffered from some type of mental incapacity, such as dementia or Alzheimer’s?  It doesn’t have to be dementia or Alzheimer’s, but that’s one we commonly see.  If the decedent is suffering from any mental incapacity issues, and you have all of those other things we’ve talked about, those elements we’ve looked at, where this person is in a position of power, that generally leads us to believe that that person exercised undue influence over this individual. If they’re receiving a lion share of the estate plan, or they are receiving more than they would have, absent the undue influence.

Those are some of the things we look at to determine if we can show undue influence took place during the lifetime of decedent, often shortly before the decedent passed away.

 

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Hi, this is Stewart Albertson with Albertson & Davidson and I want to talk to you about one of more difficult set of cases we come across and I call these the “Difficult Don’t Miss Undue Influence Cases”.  Let me say that one more time – the Difficult Don’t Miss Undue Influence Case.

What is the difficult don’t miss undue influence case?  That’s where someone has exercised undue influence over your mom or dad while they are still living and mom and dad have not passed away.  And so the question is, what can we do to invalidate the trust or the will that the wrongdoer got created using – exercising undue influence over mom and dad?

These are very difficult cases and the reason they are is because it comes down to California law and capacity and where mom and dad fits in that capacity determination.  So, you can file what we call a conservatorship proceeding where you ask the court to put someone else in charge of mom or dad’s estate.  But, as you can probably imagine, if mom or dad has any capacity whatsoever, they don’t like being told that they don’t have capacity and they certainly aren’t going to like that you’re the one who is asking the court to find that they are not capacitated.  So mom and dad can become upset by this.

The person who’s the wrongdoer who is already unduly influencing your mom or dad, they’re going to take advantage of this situation and they’re going to point out to your mom or dad, that look, your son not only doesn’t love you and doesn’t like you, your son wants to take your capacity away.  You son’s trying to get access to your estate before you’re even gone.  This son of yours is a greedy heir and we see this again time and time in these cases where mom and dad are still living and somebody is exercising undue influence over them.

So what are you to do in these type of difficult cases?  Do you file for conservatorship and that’s why we call these the Difficult Don’t Miss Undue Influence Cases.  Because if you’re going to file for conservatorship, you have to win it.  If you don’t win it and mom and dad is capacitated – are still capacitated and a court finds that they’re capacitated.  Chances are if you were in their trust or will, you’re certainly not going to be in it now by way of an amendment or a codicil to the will.  And then you’re going to have a much higher hill to climb after your mom and dad die when you do bring a trust contest or a will contest.

So, what is a better option, perhaps?  And it’s hard, because, sometimes you have to sit back and do nothing while mom and dad are living.  And what we suggest to many clients is just focus on mom or dad in their sunset years of their live, give them comfort, give them care, give them compassion, spend time with them.  Don’t talk to them about their trust or their will.  Don’t talk to them about their assets – as difficult as that may be.  Because the person who is exercising undue influence over them will turn that against you and make it seem like YOU’RE the one that’s trying to get their assets.  YOU’RE the one that’s the greedy heir.  YOU’RE THE problem, not them.

So if you can, stay disciplined.  Focus on your parents.  Care for them in the sunset years, however many months or years they have left.  Then, once they pass away, there are remedies available to you, such as a trust contest, a hill contest, and financial elder abuse that you can file to remedy the undue influence that took place against your parents during their lifetime.

These are very difficult cases.  It’s very difficult to determine the best route to take.  Our advice is generally to err on the side of caution and that is wait till your mom or dad pass and then you can address the undue influence.

THE FOLLOWING IS A TRANSCRIPT OF THIS VIDEO. FOR MORE INFORMATION, CLICK HERE

Hi, this is Stewart Albertson with Albertson & Davidson and I want to talk to you just briefly about three important sets of documents that we need to get quickly in any type of trust or will contest.  So this happens when a client has already shown up and hired a lawyer.  They’ve already filed their trust contest or their will contest and now the question is what documents do we need to begin the case?  To begin our discovery, to begin strategizing how we’re going to overturn the trust or the will that is a product of undue influence or lack of capacity.

And these come down to three subpoenas and they should go out quickly.  You want to get these documents quickly, to make sure you get the full set of documents, and then you want to have the right people review them once you have them so they can help shape your case going forward, help shape your discovery and, hopefully, shape a successful outcome in invalidating a trust or a will that is the product of undue influence or lack of capacity.

The first set of documents that we want to subpoena right away are from the estate planning attorney.  So the estate planning attorney who drafted the trust or the will or both, we want to get a letter to them immediately telling them to safeguard their file and they can be accept – expecting a subpoena.  Once they receive that subpoena, they have a short time to respond and most estate planning attorneys will send us their files so that we can review them to see what were the circumstances around the creation of the trust or the will.

Sometimes, these attorneys though, they decide they don’t want to send the file and that’s not a problem.  Because then we can file a motion to compel, is what we call it, file that in court and we’ll get a judge to order them to give us the documents.  In many cases, once we file this motion to compel, the estate planning attorney will agree and send over the files.  So that’s the first set of documents you must get in a trust and will contest – and the sooner, the better!

The second set of documents will be the medical records and these are rich – especially if the decedent had multiple providers.  So you want to subpoena out to every single medical provider that you are aware of.  Once you have the first set of medical records, there’ll be other doctors, other hospitals, other medical providers that you’ll in those medical records.  In many cases, neurologists and those are really good medical records to get – so you’ll want to send out subsequent subpoenas for those documents as well.  Most big medical providers are very good at responding to subpoenas and in short order, if you give them a subpoena that’s well drafted and it details exactly what you’re looking for, you will have medical records that you can review to look for things such as dementia, Alzheimer’s and other mental/cognitive deficits that may have impacted the decedent at the time that the will or trust was created that you’re alleging was the product of undue influence of lack of capacity.

Finally, the last set of records are the financial records, and they’re also rich.  Especially if there’s a wrongdoer who did exercise undue influence over your mom or dad before they passed away.  This person generally can’t wait to get their hands on the money until the person dies, so they get their hands on the money during lifetime and they start taking a lot of cash withdrawals from the ATM, they’ll write checks to themselves calling them cash.  They may even sign them for the decedent, your mom or your father, and take this money and start spending it, using it for whatever it is they want to use it for.

So once you file the trust or will contest, you want to jump quickly on these three sets of documents.  Once you have them, they’re going to go a long way in getting you to a good settlement, or you’re going to be able to prove at the time of trial that, in fact, undue influence or lack of capacity did take  place in the creation of the will and the trust.

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Hi, this is Stewart Albertson with Albertson and Davidson and we get this question every now and then, and the question is: Do I really need to hire a lawyer for my trust contest or will contest or can I do it on my own? Can I go order a book from Nolo press or from Amazon and just figure out how to do this myself? And here’s the answer: No. That could be the end of this article right now, but no, you cannot handle your own trust contest or will contest.

I know that sounds like a self-serving statement because I’m a lawyer and I get paid to bring these cases, but this would be like asking you, can you handle your own gallbladder surgery? Can you handle your own appendectomy? Can you handle your own heart surgery? No, you’re going to have to hire professionals to do that if you want it done right. So get the books from Amazon, get the books from Nolo press so that you can educate yourself on what a trust contest is, a will contest, and how they work so that you can go in and sit down and have a good conversation with a professional lawyer to determine the best course of action moving forward. But if you really want a trust contests or a will contest done properly, you’re going to have to use a professional lawyer who has the experience in the field to handle it properly.

 

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This is Keith A. Davidson from Albertson and Davidson. In this video, I want to talk to you about the differences between Wills and Trusts. A lot of times people think that Wills and Trusts are the same thing, that they’re the same type of documents, and they really aren’t. Wills and Trusts are very different, and so let’s start with a discussion of Wills, and then we’ll talk about Trusts and you can see the differences between the two documents.

Wills are testamentary documents, and what that means is they only come into effect, they only actually are created, upon somebody’s death. Now you go ahead and create the Will and write it down and sign it prior to death, but it doesn’t operate until after death. For Wills, there’s a lot of what we call formalities that you have to follow.

To have a valid Will, you have to have it in writing. It has to be signed by the person who’s creating the Will, and a typewritten Will has to be witnessed by two witnesses, or it has to be in the testator’s own handwriting. That’s what we call a holographic Will. If you don’t meet those formalities when you create a Will, then the Will simply isn’t going to be valid. That’s something that is unique to Will’s. You’re not going to have that with Trust.

After somebody passes away, a Will cannot operate over their assets until you take that Will to court and you have the court admit the Will to probate. That’s where the court decides whether the Will is valid or not, and until the Will is admitted to probate, nothing can happen with that Will. You can’t administer it. You can’t manage the decedents assets. It has to go through this court process in order to operate and then the Will ultimately will dictate how the assets pass out of probate and to the beneficiaries who are intended to receive them. And that’s generally how a Will works.

A Trust is very different because most people create what we call a living Trust. In legal terms, we would call that an inter-vivos Trust, meaning that it’s created during your lifetime and it actually operates during your lifetime. So the Trustee of your living Trust can manage your assets, can make management decisions over those assets, and it operates even if you lose capacity. That’s different from a Will because the Will never helps you if you lose capacity, but a Trust does. And then after you passed the Trustee can administer that Trust without having to go to court.

Trust don’t require any court oversight in order to be administered. And in order to create a Trust, all you have to do is have something in writing and signed. You don’t technically even need to have it notarized, although most Trusts are notarized and they probably should be, but that’s not a legal requirement that they be notarized.

Trusts tend to be a lot more flexible because you can leave your assets to your children or your beneficiaries, and you can have all sorts of flexibility in how you leave your assets to them. So, you can leave something in a child’s Trust that holds their assets until a certain age, or you can leave something to your grandchild and also hold that until they reach a certain age. There’s all sorts of flexibility that you can build into your Trust that is much harder to do under a Will because the Will has to go to court and through the probate process in order to be administered.

So that is some differences between a Will and a Trust, and I think you’ll see that they’re very different documents.

If you find your inheritance being reduced or eliminated and you want to take action to protect yourself in court, you may want to first consider California No Contest clauses.  California Trusts and Wills often contain a no contest clause that states you will be disinherited if you challenge the terms of the Trust or Will.  And while California no contest clauses have been severely limited in recent years under California law, they still can apply to certain actions you take to challenge a Trust or Will.

In this course, we discuss the application of California no contest clauses in more detail and offer our views on how best to deal with this difficult issue.  If you would prefer to read about this topic, you can find our written blog post here.

The Facts

In this video we cover the basic ground rules for California no contest clauses and provide the factual scenario we will use for the next two video lessons.

The Law

Partner Stewart Albertson provides his professional opinion on how to deal with California no contest clauses found in California Trusts and Wills.

The Talk

Partners Stewart Albertson and Keith A. Davidson discuss their views of how to deal with California no contest clauses.

The strength-2

I have seen many lawyers argue themselves OUT of a win by talking too much in court. The first rule of oral argument in court is that if you do not need to say anything because the judge is agreeing with you, then SHUT UP. You do yourself no service by re-hashing a point the court already accepts, and you run the risk of changing the court’s mind against you.

In those cases where the court is not going your way, then you do need to speak up. And here is the best advice I can give anyone speaking with a judge in court: listen to the judge and answer his or her question. Sounds simple enough, but again it is rarely practiced.

So often people come to court prepared to argue what they think the issue is, or what they fear the weak point is. But the court often sees the issue a little differently. You have to understand your legal arguments and be prepared to speak, but arguing a point the judge is not asking about is a waste of time and effort. More importantly, you can frustrate the judge and lose the argument altogether.

The best oral arguments I have had in court come from entering into a conversation with the court. The judge raises an issue or question, I listen to what he or she is asking about, and I formulate my response to address that concern.   You must always remember that you are engaging in a conversation with the court. Coming into court with a pre-packaged argument and then not varying from your script is a sure recipe for disaster.

And when the court agrees with you and starts peppering the opposing party with questions, shut up.  At times, your best argument can be silence.

simplicity

How do you write a winning brief? Say what you are going to say, say it, and then say what you said. That is an old rule in writing and it applies to well written legal briefs also. The biggest problem with most written legal arguments is the length. As Winston Churchill once said of a very lengthy report “This document by its very length defends itself against the risk of being read.”

Judges are busy people. The court staff who review most of the pleadings before the judge reads it are also busy people. They have to sort through thousands of pleadings on a daily basis and try to make sense of it all. Yet so many people (lawyers included) think that the judge has a full Sunday afternoon dedicated to siting down with a nice cup of tea and fully reading and enjoying your written pleading. No, no, no. At most a judge may have fifteen minutes to review your work and determine what points you are making.

That means written legal arguments must be presented in a very different manner than any other writing. First, you have to tell the judge what you want him or her to do. What action should the court take? Just say it upfront. For example “the Court should grant this motion because ….” The word “because” is very important because (see what I did there) it forces you to put a point on your thought. If I say “the court should grant this motion” and stop there then the judge does not know why that should be done. Tell the judge why as soon as possible. Do it in your first sentence.

Next, you have to tell the judge what legal authority you have to support the request. Judges like to follow the law (its kinda their thing), so give them the law. It should be short and to the point. Not so short that it makes no sense, but also not any longer than required to convey the point.

Finally, conclude and get out. Your job in any written legal argument is to say what you need to say as quickly and clearly as possible and then STOP. There is no reason to restate the points again, and again, and again. Some lawyers just cannot help themselves from writing too much. There is also a fear that the point may not be made. But in reality it is often the smallest light that cuts through the fog. Simple, concise language covering less than a page conveys a better and more powerful message than ten pages of legal prose.

Quality Matters!

When exactly did we lose sight of quality? In our fast paced world, we often expect things (1) cheaply, and (2) quickly. That works great for fast food and cheap electronics, but not so well for professional services. If you need a heart transplant do you want the cheapest, fastest surgeon? Or would you prefer someone who charges more because they have great expertise and they take their time?

Let’s be honest, legal work is expensive. And unlike your healthcare, there really is no good comprehensive insurance product that pays for a majority of the costs. Quality legal services costs more than the cheap and quick stuff. The problem is that it can be hard to discern quality in legal services. It’s not like buying a luxury car where you sit in the car and can see the quality for yourself.

Yet there is no doubt in my mind that quality matters in legal services. Many legal arguments are won or lost on the written motions. Even routine hearings can be done better with proper preparation beforehand. It takes time to provide quality services, but that investment can pay huge dividends in terms of the ultimate results.

Of course, you can do everything well and still lose. That’s the nature of our adversarial legal system.  Ultimately someone else makes the decision as to who wins and who loses; you have no control over that. The only thing you can control is the amount of energy and effort you put into your case. The higher the degree of quality, the more likely you are to succeed.

For most people, a Trust or Will lawsuit is a once-in-a-lifetime event where the family legacy is on the line.  That’s when quality counts the most.

Are you Serious!?!

When dealing with dysfunctional family relationships, you have to be ready to adapt and modify. In other words, be creative. Taking a hard stance and expecting others to “take it or leave it” is rarely a successful strategy when dealing with anybody—let alone dysfunctional relations.

While the typical Trust or Will lawsuit is rather complex, there are ways to get creative in nearly every case. Primarily because most people are not necessarily looking to get everything they say they want. What most people want more than anything is a symbolic win. Something that validates their position and provides a sign of respect for their relationship to the decedent. Don’t get me wrong, people want money too, but not every asset is created equal when it comes to family assets.

For example, tangible personal property, things like family heirlooms, photos, furniture, and keepsakes can be paramount in a party’s mind when fighting over an estate. Such items may seem petty or worthless to others, but the symbolic value of such property can carry a good deal of weight. And giving personal items to a party who cares about such things can go a long way to showing respect and providing a symbolic victory. Best of all, the victory can be given without any real loss of monetary value! Talk about a win-win situation.

This is just one example. There have been many times when we have been able to work out creative solutions. Another good example is giving a surviving spouse a life estate in real property—allowing them to live there until they either pass away or move into a care facility—and then allowing the children to obtain the property thereafter is a great strategy for giving the same property to two different people.

A creative solution may not always work, but getting creative increases the chances of finding common ground in litigated matters that otherwise would never be available to parties if they remained entrenched in their positions.